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Orenburg State University july 26, 2017 RU/EN
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№ 3 ' 2017

Biological sciences

UDC: 611.63/67+611.018+591.143.8+463.2.08Bokov D.A., Obidchenko M.P. MORPHOPHYSIOLOGICAL REGULARITY OF FEMALE PYGMY WOOD MOUSE (SYLVAEMUS URALENSIS PALLAS, 1811) PUBERTY: INTRAOVARIAL FACTORS AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
Puberty of female pygmy wood mouse, as an ecological phenomenon, is a complex morphophysiological process of forming groups of reproductively active individuals at the population level, and the development of the reproductive system, based on ovaries' organ differentiation. Conditions of animals puberty define functional and reproductive heterogeneity of the elementary populations' structure and the specificity of the active mechanisms of population reproduction adaptation processes. To date, the environmental aspects of female pygmy wood mouse puberty remain to be studied insufficiently. Using population-statistics, histological, morphometric methods we studied the dynamics, volume, direction of ovaries' organ differentiation and functionally-reproductive structure of pygmy wood mouse elementary populations according to fertility level and population density. It was found that in groups with low population density the proportion of females, whose fertility is low (3–5embryos per individual), increases. It indirectly evidences of earlier puberty. Histological analysis has showed that such animals have ovarian hyperplasia, when just emerged on the surface mice have folliculogenesis and endocrine activity of the gonads. In populations with a high population density up to 70% of females usually have 6–7embryos per one. There puberty is blocked. Firstly, there are females with gonadal hypoplasia, when the ovary has featured of embriotipical organ. Secondly, folliculogenesis of some animals is controllable suppressed because of developing glandular structures in ovarian cortex, whose endocrine activity depresses the central influence on the sex glands. Thus, we received information about new mechanisms of reproduction regulation in populations of pygmy wood mouse, based on adaptive control of females puberty.Key words: wood mouse, puberty, the mechanisms of ovarian development, function-reproductive group, reproduction, fertility.References...

UDC: 612.087.1:611.1-057.87Katashinskaya L.I. THE FUNCTIONAL STATE OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF TRAINING LOADS
The problem of preserving the health of the young generation and a significant decrease in its level in recent years, determines the need for monitoring the functional state of a growing organism. The cardiovascular system is the leading system, it causes the functional state of the organism as a whole. The intensification of a training load, especially for high school students may condition the tension in the functioning of a heart and blood vessels and reduce the adaptation reserves of an organism. Therefore, for effective prevention of violations in the state of health of school-leavers it is necessary to monitor the reactions of a cardiovascular system to a training load. A study of the functional state of a cardiovascular system of high school students under the influence of training loads was carried out. The study showed that systolic, diastolic, and average arterial pressure in young men is higher than that of girls, and regardless of gender it exceeds the average norm for children of this age. For young men of the town of Ishim, Tyumen region, systolic and minute blood volumes are lower for than their peers living in the North region. In the dynamics of a school week fluctuations in systolic blood pressure in seniors are expressed to a greater extent than diastolic. The level of systolic blood pressure in girls by the end of a week regularly increased, in young men the level of systolic pressure in a school week dynamics practically did not change. In the dynamics of a school day in boys and girls fluctuations in diastolic blood pressure were more significant. Increase in diastolic blood pressure after classes at senior pupils was the higher, the greater the number and difficulty of lessons were. These study results indicate the voltage of a functional state of a cardiovascular system at high school students under the influence of training loads.Key words: arterial pressure, academic loads, functional state, young men and girls, cardiovascular system.References...

UDC: 595.773.4Markova T.O., slov M.V., Repsh N.V., Bolovtsov E.N., Gulyaeva V.A. METHODS OF COLLECTING AND KEEPING OF INSECTS— POTENTIAL HOSTS OF TACHINIDAE (DIPTERA) IN THE PRIMORYE TERRITORY OF THE FAR EAST OF RUSSIA
Tachinidae (Diptera)— a group of parasitic insects, which in accordance with the modern classification includes four subfamilies: Exoristinae, Tachininae, Dexiinae, Phasiinae. Insects of 6orders: Orthoptera, Dermaptra (adult); Coleoptera (larvas and adult); Lepidoptera (larvas); Hymenoptera (larvas); Diptera (larvas) comprising more than 40families are masters of Tachinidae subfamily Exoristinae, Tachininae and Dexiinae in the Primorye Territory of the Far East of Russia. Tachinidae of the subfamily Phasiinae are specialized insect pests of the order Heteroptera (adult, larvas less), including 5families. The study of the fauna Tachinidae and trophic relations in the larval stage is of great scientific and practical importance in the fight against insects— pests of agriculture and forestry. Field methods collection of insects for the purpose of their study, as well as raising of parasites-entomophagous are defined tasks, confined to the habitat types, daily activity and other factors. However, in each particular case requires the development of private methods that take into account statsialnuyu attachment of species at different stages of development, especially the daily activity in a variety of systematic-economic groups, the climatic conditions in a particular region, trophical selectivity insects at concentrations their in laboratory and field conditions with the aim of raising of parasites. The data of information about the hosts of Tachinidae (Diptera) in the Primorye Territory of the Far East of Russia are showed in the article. The literature and our own information on the methods of collection and maintenance of insects of different taxonomic groups with the aim of raising Tachinidae and collecting the resulting material for its further determination are generalized.Key words: Diptera, Tachinidae, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, larvas, adult, pupariums, raising.References...

UDC: 581.526.35Mironycheva-Tokareva N.P., Kosykh N.P., Vishnyakova E.K., Koronatova N.G., Stepanova V.A., Saib E.A., Pokrovskij O.S. VEGETATION AND PLANT MATTER OF RAISED BOGS IN FOREST-STEPPE ZONE IN THE SOUTH OF WESTERN SIBERIA
The forest-steppe zone within the Novosibirsk region of Western Siberia was surveyed. The following typical mire ecosystems in close contact with each other are functioning: oligotrophic pine-dwarf shrub-Sphagnum raised bogs (ryams), reed floodplains and mesotrophic fens around secondary lakes in ryams. Calculation of the productive parameters of the pine stand was calculated using young model trees. Photosynthesizing mass of pine trees was 120g/m2, above-ground lignified organs— 344g/m2 with trunks contributed of 66%, and the trunk stock under the moss cover was 64g/m2. The stock of dead branches was 19g/m2. The total stock of above-ground mass of trees was estimated as 464g/m2, with contribution of pine trees in the total aboveground phytomass of 36% in ryams. Pine primary production was calculated as the sum of the current year needles and shoots and reached 47g/m2 a year, ie 14% of the total aboveground production in the ryam. In all types of mire ecosystems the phytomass, mortmass and net primary production were evaluated. Stocks of aboveground biomass varied from300 to 2,200g/m2, below-ground phytomass— from1,200 to 4,200g/m2. Net primary production varied from500 to 3,000g/m2 a year, minimal production is produced in oligotrophic ryams, and maximal production is produced in mesotrophic and eutrophic mires. Phytomass stocks and production were estimated for dwarf-shrub, grass and moss layers. Value of standing crop is similar in the studied ecosystems and estimated as 4,133g/m2 in fens, 4,032g/m2 in floodplains, and 3,681g/m2 in the ryam.Key words: bog ecosystem, reserve, primary production, plant matter, monitoring.References...

UDC: 581.9(470.5)Perezhogin Y.V., Kulikov P.V. NEW SPECIES OF FLORA OF KAZAKHSTAN
The flora of any region— is a complex, constantly changing system, so any summary compiled Floral able to reflect its state only at a given time. Kazakhstan's flora includes currently more than 6,000wild plants, but talk about a complete study of the region is not yet possible. In the process of studying the flora in the period from1994 to2010 we identified a further 16species belonging to 14genera of 11families, new to the flora of Kazakhstan. The resulting research abstract expand the list of wild plants for the new edition of “Flora of Kazakhstan”.Key words: Kazakhstan's flora, wild species of plants, the location.References...

UDC: 619.061.62Sivkova E.I., Khlyzova T.A., Fyodorova O.A. SOME ASPECTS OF STUDYING OF NASOPHARYNGEAL GADFLIES (SEM.OESTRIDAE) IN SIBERIA
For Siberia wide hozyaystvenno— representatives of three genus of nasopharyngeal gadflies have economic value (r.OestrusL., p.CephenomyiaLatr, r.RhinoestrusBr.,). The analysis of scientific materials has shown that 122experts 34research establishment have devoted to their studying the researches (NRU). In the study r.OestrusL. attended by 69researchers, p.CephenemyiaLatr.— 32 and 21 r.RhinoestrusBr.—21. Development of means and methods of protection of sheep against a nasopharyngeal gadfly (42.7%) was the main direction of researches and the most productive, environmental issues, methodologies occupy 30.7% and epizootologiya— 16.2%. In other regions these works, except for the Chita region, have made in general across Eastern Siberia— 18.9%, to the Far East— 13.8% of total amount. Reduced animal productivity losses due to parasitic diseases is a problem, the relevance of which is indisputable. The sheep to diseases related Estrosi, reindeer herding— tsefenomiyoz in horse breeding— rinestroz. Western Siberia as zone of the most developed sheep breeding (Altai, Sayan Mountains, Zauralie), especially needed carrying out such researches as (a false vertyachka) annually carried away up to 6–10.0% of sick sheep from life, as causes high share of participation of scientists in this region (67.2%). Environmental issues (29.0%), protection of deer (27.9%) and epizootologiya (23.4%) belong to the main directions of researches of scientists of a tsefenomiyoz. Data on the executed researches demonstrate that in general 97scientists and experts have devoted to studying of a rinestroz the researches. 65.9% have executed researches in Western Siberia from them, 27.8% in Eastern Siberia. 25.7% are devoted to development of means and methods of protection of horses against a gadfly, epizootologiya— 24.7% and ecology— 18.5%.Key words: nasopharyngeal gadflies, researches of scientists, research establishments, Siberia.References...

UDC: 612.43Simonova T.O., Kiseleva M.M., Smelysheva L.N., Zakharov E.V. INFLUENCE OF THE STRESS ON INDICATORS OF SEX HORMONES AND LEPTIN AT STUDENTS OF HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION
In everyday life students rather often are influenced by influence of various stress factors. The examination stress is the frequent reason of emotional pressure. Adaptation of an organism at an emotional stress is provided by various power substrates. The nature of changes in a functional condition of an organism of students during examination continues to remain one of the most studied physiological problems. Studying of dynamics of a leptin in interrelation with hormones of a forward share of a pituitary body in the conditions of a stress, depending on an initial tonus of the autonomic nervous system are studied a little. In a research it is established that at girls in the conditions of an emotional stress vegetative correlates of a leptin don't depend on an initial tonus of the autonomic nervous system, at the same time the maximum values of a leptin are caused by prevalence of sympathetic influences. Besides, at emotional pressure depression of concentration of LG at girls with a vagotonia and rising of FSG in the general group, and also at girls with vago-and a normotoniya was taped. In the conditions of a stress vagotonys defined the minimum values of prolactinum, with ascending of activity of a sympathetic tonus concentration of hormone increased. Thus, influence of an emotional stress on work of genesial system is established. Responses varied depending on an initial tonus of the autonomic nervous system. In the conditions of an emotional stress in all surveyed subgroups more expressed shifts in allocation of gonadotropinums and sexual steroids became perceptible. Change of concentration of sexual gonadotropinums in the conditions of emotional pressure had multidirectional character and depended on the prevailing tonus of the autonomic nervous system.Key words: leptin; luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones; autonomic nervous system.References...

UDC: 581.5Skvortsova T. A. SELECTIVE ACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS BY REPRESENTATIVES OF THE ROSACEAE FAMILY IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE CITY OF ORENBURG (ON THE EXAMPLE OF MALUS CERASIFERA SPACH. AND MALUS PRUNIFOLIA (WILLD))
The main feature of ecosystems of the modern cities is that in them the ecological equilibrium between streams of substance and the energy spent by the population for own consumption and the number of the waste coming to the atmosphere and the soil as a result of activity of the industry, construction and transport is broken. Accumulation in city ecosystems of the heavy metals (HM) which partially accumulate wood and shrubby plants of park zones and street plantings became one of the investigations of this phenomenon. Plants in relation to TM have one important property— selective accumulation thanks to which trees and bushes of different families and types accumulate in the vegetative and generative bodies various heavy metals and in their different quantities. In this regard there is a need for the correct selection of wild and fruit species of the plants applied to gardening of urban areas taking into account structure of pollutants of the urban environment and natural feature of trees and bushes to accumulation of metals. It is experimentally shown that among metals pollutants of soils of the city of Orenburg often there are a copper, zinc and lead. On the example of planting of Malus cerasifera Spach. and Malus prunifolia (Willd.) various extent of accumulation of these TM by generative and vegetative bodies of plants is established. At the same time dependence between concentration of TM in the studied soil and vegetable samples is revealed. Fruits of the studied plants to a lesser extent heat copper, the maximum accumulation is noted at zinc. The obtained data reflect different intensity of accumulation of TM by various bodies of plants of the Rosaceae family. Fruit plantings of the Rosaceae family (in particular Malus cerasifera Spach. and Malus prunifolia (Willd.)) are capable to long-term vegetation in the conditions of considerable technogenic load of ecosystems of the city of Orenburg.Key words: selective accumulation, apple-tree, heavy metals, ecology.References...

Pedagogical sciences

UDC: 930.2; 908Ershov M.F. SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PORTRAITS OF THE TEACHERS OF THE TRANS-URALS IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE XIX— EARLY THE XXCENTURIES
The object of the study was the history of the regional system of education the second half of the XIX— early of the XXcenturies. Is it no secret that in domestic public consciousness dominated idealized conceptions and evaluations of employees of pedagogical work for a long time. The article analyzes the images of the provincial teachers of the Trans-Urals. Necessary to understand socio-psychological stereotypes influenced on the shaping of their images. For consummation of this aim several question was set. What motivation determines the behavior of educators? How did the processes of their adaptation in the environment where they fell? What conflicts are faced by the teachers? In the article on special examples considered the problem of motivation of actions of teachers, their adaptation to existence in rural and provincial environment. Public opinion stand for the emancipation of women. Pedagogy was one of the few areas where a competent woman was able to realize themselves professionally. In general, the teachers were guided by the idea of serving people, borrowed from the tops of the passing of feudal society. Their Patriarchal environment proceeded from the alienation of the individual teacher, which created ground for conflicts. At the same time expected the possibility of using the teacher as a mediator between the local society and the larger world. The results of the study show that in public consciousness the figure of the teacher was mythologized. Work of teacher was seen as a heroic act and as a necessary atoning sacrifice. All the social forces it was assumed that the education system should be based on impersonal values. This dominance over the individual and private interests were devalued human life and overshadow the pragmatic side of education. The economic success of post-reform Russia is not quite consistent with the level of cultural development. As a result, graduates and graduates of educational institutions who have chosen the field of teachers, focused not so much on the “boring” daily work, but to achieve a lofty goal, direct participation in the creation of an ideal society.Key words: the marriage, the Trans-Urals, the myth, national education, the image, the province, the teacher, values.References...

UDC: 37.035.6Karatayeva T. A. ROLE OF SOCIAL INSTITUTES IN FORMATION OF CIVIL IDENTITY OF MODERN TEENAGERS
The present article is devoted to identification of a role of the main social institutes in formation of civil identity of modern school students as valuable characteristic of their personal development in the conditions of modern information society. Special significance is attached by the author to the education system performing function of socialization in the teenager's life in the context of implementation of Federal state educational standards of the second generation and introduction of system and activity approach in educational process. Formation of civil identity of school students acts as a national objective which solution is assigned to the main public institutes, and therefore can't be carried out at spontaneous combination of circumstances, needing the rational organization. Characterizing influence of a family on formation of civil qualities of children, the author proves a thought of a considerable divergence in understanding of the main categories of the phenomenon of civil identity at adult and young citizens that is explained by distinctions of their gnoseological features. In an assessment of impact of media on formation of civil identity of seniors it is necessary to consider attentively risk of the distorted perception of reality and imposing of an image of the citizen who doesn't have a conscious basis. The author comes to a conclusion about need of realization of axiological and subject approaches in the course of purposeful formation of civil identity of seniors at modern school as education as social institute carries out the state order, being guided by approximate programs for objects and the standards directing to educational activity of teachers on younger generation. It is important to realize the importance of gateway interaction of a family, school, mass media, the immediate environment of teenagers in development of their civil potential, public activity, a subject position. Key words: civil identity, social institute, subjectivity, axiological approach.References...

UDC: 355.237.084.92Mikhaylov I. L. FEATURES OF TRAINING OF SOLDIERS OF A STOCK IN CIVIL HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS
Interests of defense capability of the country demand high-quality preparation of a mobilization reserve for Armed Forces of Russia, including soldiers of a stock. The student teaching of training of the military personnel used in civil higher education institutions not fully meets requirements imposed to readiness of soldiers of a stock. This circumstance has revealed need of development of effective pedagogical technologies, in relation to educational activity of civil higher education institutions. For the solution of this problem we have laid down the following organizational and pedagogical conditions: enrichment of skills of future soldiers of a stock; formation of their organizational and strong-willed qualities; their familiarizing with military and professional actions. We suggest to enable the realization of the called conditions by means of use in educational activity of professionally focused technologies. The main during our research has been elected technology a case-stadi. Also during a practical training students were involved in performance of tasks for decision-making, providing search of the optimal solution. During the training sessions in military units future soldiers of a stock gained skills of use of weapons and military equipment, worked educational and fighting tasks. Realization of the organizational and pedagogical conditions which are laid down by us has yielded positive results. So, the number of students of experimental groups with the initial level of readiness to military professional activity was reduced from 52.45% at the beginning of the experiment to 19.1% at the end, from 39.1 to 46.67% the number of students with basic level of readiness and from 8.45% has increased to 34.23%— with the increased level. Realization of the organizational and pedagogical conditions which are laid down by us allows to increase quality of training of soldiers of a stock in civil higher education institutions.References...

UDC: 378Ustselemova N.A., Ivanova E.A. SPORTS ACTIVITY AS MEANS OF FORMATION IN THE FUTURE BACHELOR PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROFESSIONAL STABILITY
The needs of the society in highly qualified specialists working at the level of world standards, stipulate high requirements to the qualities and personality characteristics formed in the process of education. In the practice of education, the role of physical culture and sports activity in the process of physical education as a means of forming a professional culture for future bachelors in physical education is insufficiently substantiated, which determined the significance of our research. The effectiveness of the formation of future professional bachelors in the physical culture of professional sustainability is ensured by the active involvement of students in the process of physical culture and sports and subjective factors. The motivation of students is enhanced by understanding the spiritual value of classes, developing cognitive abilities in the process of physical culture and sports. This is achieved through an increase in the information-educational orientation of educational and extra-curricular forms of physical exercise. This approach to the lessons provides an opportunity to successfully solve a number of important training tasks, namely, to develop skills of self-organization, self-regulation and self-control, which, according to our observations, characterizes their professional stability. The analysis of the obtained results showed that the positive changes in the structural components of the professional stability of future bachelors of physical culture and the level of formation of the studied quality are expressed in the development of professionally important qualities of future bachelors of physical culture, the ability to act properly directly in the educational and professional activities, the frequency of application of various means and forms Physical education during the passage of practice, the creative use of acquired knowledge, skills in the organization and conduct of athletic and sporting events.Key words: physical education, physical training and sports activities, future bachelors of physical training, self-organization, self-regulation, self-control, professional stability, components of professional stability.References...

Philological sciences

UDC: 821.161.2Larkovich D.V. TO A QUESTION OF THE MODALITY IN THE LYRIC POET T.G.SHEVCHENKO OF THE PERIOD OF THE ORENBURG REFERENCE
The period of Orenburg exile (1847–1857), which is comparable to the previous and following stages of Shevchenko`s creative activity in its length and the volume of written works, became an significant milestone for the development of his creative individuality. Although the forced isolation partly restricted his opportunities to contact with the outer cultural environment, it enabled him to acquire invaluable life experience that served as a powerful impulse towards the development of his authorial intentions. Despite “the strictest control with the prohibition to write and draw” Shevchenko wrote more than 100 poetic works during his Orenburg exile period. The prevailing part of poems is of meditative character, where the poet strives to reveal the reasons of the dramatic events in his life. The poetry of this period is marked by the mood of doomed sadness and a sinking feeling of longing for Ukraine bringing about nostalgic reminiscence, wistful brooding over its past and present. The personalistic base of Shevchenko`s lyrical discourse characterized by a clearly expressed subjective position and strong personal tone becomes significantly stronger. The personal feelings of the poet inspired by the arrest and exile encouraged authorial expressiveness asserting personality as the highest spiritual value. The idea of the doleful fate of a person in Shevchenko`s works often takes the form of prayer-theomachist discourse and acquires the scale of ontological generalization. Striving to reveal the reasons of the dramatic events in his life the poet comes to the conclusion that a person`s life is determined by some transpersonal circumstances, however, it doesn`t lessen the level of his moral responsibility. M.Yu.Lermontov`s creative experience, with which Shevchenko holds a creative dialogue in his exile period, fastens in Shevchenko`s mind the idea that the conscious status of a poet as an oracle of the Highest Truth doesn`t just reinforce the degree of this responsibility but also makes a tragic impact on the fate of its bearer.Key words: T.G. Shevchenko, Ural literature, lyric consciousness, author`s modality, poetic dialogue.References...

UDC: 81.42Moiseeva I.Yu., Melnikova E.A. THE FEATURES OF THE FORMULAS OF RUSSIAN AND FRENCH SPEECH ETIQUETTE IN ORAL SPEECH: CONTRASTIVE ASPECT
The lexical system of the language is an open dynamic system that are most sensitive to changes in the social, political, economic, and spiritual spheres of society, and in this connection it is an object of research not only linguists, but also multidisciplinary works. The system of rules of verbal behavior, the norms of use of language in certain conditions is not so dynamic, but the values, ideas about the national culture of the individual play a major role in the process of its successful socialization into the foreign language environment. As a basic principle of the description of verbal behavior accepts the principle of contrastively developed by I.A.Sternina, which is the most accurate method to detect and describe both common and national characteristics of the communicative behavior of the people. The unit of analysis was the most neutral and most frequent formula of speech etiquette used in situations of abuse and raise awareness in the Russian and French languages. The analysis revealed that the matching in both cultures the communicative signs of speech etiquette when applying, is the model of “you”— “you”. To the national specific communicative signs of the use of etiquette formulas of the appeal in the Russian language are: reference by name and patronymic, contact psychological proxemics, i.e. the absence in the Russian speech of a well-established treatment to the recipient; a gender differentiation of communicants when referring to a single person or multiple people; the leveling of the gender differentiation when addressing a large audience, the predominance of social differentiation.Key words: speech etiquette, national communicative behavior, stereotyping communicative behavior, the formula of speech etiquette, Russian language, French language, the principle of contrastively.References...

UDC: 378 (072)Khusainova L.M. ALPHABETES OF THE BASHKIRIAN LANGUAGE INXIX— THE BEGINNING OF XXCENTURIES
At the present stage of development of the national languages, in the conditions of bilingualism and multilingualism, created on the basis of graphic Cyrillic alphabets are considered an objective necessity. In this case there are some difficulties in the transfer in writing the specific sounds of a national language Russian letters. In this regard, there is now a growing interest in the problems of development in Cyrillic alphabets. There is a need to study the history of development issues to identify existing problems, in particular, alphabets and alphabets of the Bashkir language in the Cyrillic alphabet. The article reviews the alphabets and alphabets of the Bashkir language, compiled inXIX— the beginning of XXcenturies. Such researchers as V.V.Katarinsky, A.G.Bessonov, N.F.Katanov, who are not native speakers of the Bashkir language. They developed in different years 3letters of the Bashkir language in Cyrillic, which they used when studying this language and teaching students in the Bashkir language. All the editions contain author's alphabets for the Bashkir language in Cyrillic. In the article, by means of a comparative analysis, specific features of the transmission of specific sounds of the Bashkir language were revealed when writing texts in the Bashkir language inXIX— the beginning of XXcenturies. The author comes to the conclusion that at this stage of the Bashkir linguistics no need to amend the current alphabet, thus, for a more accurate transmission Bashkir sounding words in the letter, there is a need to improve some of the provisions of the rules of spelling and pronunciation with the new socio-cultural situation of modern Bashkir literary language as the state in the Republic of Bashkortostan.Key words: Key worlds: bashkir language, letter, writing, alphabet, abc, letters, sounds, specific sounds, graphemes.References...

UDC: 81 Yakovluk A.N., Kataeva S.V., Polyanichko M.V. LEXICAL AND GRAMMATICAL FEATURES OF THE FORMATION OF GERMANIC LANGUAGES ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE GERMAN LANGUAGE
Appeal to the comparative historical method of research makes it possible to clarify many questions that are not yet fully revealed in linguistics, such as the development of modern grammatical forms, the formation of the vocabulary of languages. For this purpose a lot of ways of enriching the vocabulary and the formation of the grammatical system of German languages at an early stage of their functioning can be viewed. Comparison of the German language with other languages leads to a deep understanding of its history and background and the knowledge of the depth of the relationship between different languages. In the course of historical development, German became part of a large unity called the German language family. The analyzed period of language development laid the foundations for the formation of lexical and grammatical systems of the languages of the modern German group. The historical consideration of linguistic phenomena shows us how the lexical and grammatical features of language are steadily changing over the centuries in the course of the economic, social and cultural development of human society, as the fundamental foundations for the functioning of Germanic languages in their present form are laid.Key words: comparative-historical method, Germanic languages, German, vocabulary, grammatical form.References...

UDC: 81'373.217(23)Yakhina R.R. FUNCTIONAL AND SEMANTIC ASSIMILATION OF TERMS OF THE ENGLISH ORIGIN: PROCESS OF A DEETIMOLOGIZATION
The present research deals with an attempt that was made to reveal the peculiarities of semantic functioning of the de-etymologisation in the example of foreign language vocabulary of English origin. Over time, some loanwords undergo a process of simplification, i.e. loss of the former word's etymological ties with the prototype causing the word of a motivated to the names of objects of objective reality becomes unmotivated name. Analysis at this stage includes the description of semantic adaptation, the functioning of these terms in two languages environments, namely in English and Russian, to trace the dependence of the lexicographical representation of the term or anglicisms in Russian and English languages. It was found that during the correlation of the prototype and borrowed words the prototype lost verbal forms, and then the borrowed word begins to be used in the Russian language only for the category of objects, events and concepts. In the language of the source word formed from a verb stem with a suffix, are perceived as divisible, composite structural terms of the type “verb+ suffix”. However, in the language-receptor, they are executed as indivisible terms. Thus, we investigated the process of de-etymologisation with borrowed words from the English language in the process of adaptation on the Russian language. Also in this work the simplification process with Sam was investigated “brand”: Vanish, Tide. Discovered a mixture of linguistic forms, which can be traced in the structure and the semantics of the language correlates. In this article we have identified the cause of de-etymologisation. There are the following main reasons: sound changes that breaks the relative ties of words, the inefficiency of certain foreign suffixes, the conditional nature of the names of certain objects, etc. In most cases of borrowing, as a part of speech are nouns, and in turn, for the semantic development of foreign words in the Russian language, from the language of the source they bring verbs. Thus, the modern Russian language is enriched not only by nouns but also verbs and adjectives.Key words: borrowing, the term, prototype, nglicisms.References...

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